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THE

EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPADIA;

CONDUCTED BY

DAVID BREWSTER, LL.D.

F. R. S, LOND. AND EDIN. AND M.R. L.A.

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PARIS, AND OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF PRUSSIA; MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF SCIENCES OF DENMARK; OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF GOTTINGEN, AND OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MODENA; HONORARY ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF LYONS; ASSOCIATE OF THE SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS; MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF THE AN- TIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND; OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, AND OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NEW YORK; OF THE LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF UTRECHT; OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF CAMBRIDGE ; OF THE LITERARY AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY OF PERTH}; OF THE NORTHERN INSTITUTION, AND OF THE ROYAL MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL SOCIETIES OF EDINBURGH ; OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; OF

4 THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF NATURAL HISTORY OF BERLIN; OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF FRANKFORT; OF THE ; PHILOSOPHICAL AND LITERARY SOCIETY OF LEEDS, OF THE ROYAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CORNWALL, AND OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF YORK.

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

GENTLEMEN EMINENT IN SCIENCE AND LITERATURE.

IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES,

: VOLUME X.

as EDINBURGH:

- PRINTED FOR WILLIAM BLACKWOOD ; , AND JOHN WAUGH, EDINBURGH; JOHN MURRAY; BALDWIN & CRADOCK; J. M. RICHARDSON, LONDON; AND THE OTHER PROPRIETORS.

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Fuci. Tae Fuci constitute a tribe of plants commonly inclu- “~~ ded, along with Ulvz and Marine Conferve, under the

more general title of Submersed , or Thalassio-

phyta, om bcraocios marine, and. @ure a plant), and well known in»this age a the ular name of Sea Weeds, (a familiar ap sak dleomioakad

not scruple to employ). In Scotland, the name wrack (probably from the French varec) is often applied to those fuci which are cut on the shores for. the manufacture of kelp. In the Sexual System, the fuci form part of the third order, , of the last class Cryptogamia ; an order in which Linneus included Jungermannia, and the other genera now denominated Hepatice. In the system of Tournetort, they form part of the second section, Plante marine, &e. of the 17th class, Asperme vulgo habite. The word fucus, (Qvxes), which means a paint, may be 8 abbole to al- lude to the quality possessed by some of the small red~ dish species, of affording a sort of rouge.

It is not easy to class the thalassiophytes with any of the families of land plants. In the most recent. syste- matic works, they are placed after the Tremelle, with which they are connected by the Ulve. To the Lichenes, which follow them, they are more close-~ ly allied: So great is the affinity of one little species, Fucus pygmeus, * that in the Flora Danica it is de« scribed by the name of Lichen confinis, and in the Methodus Lichenum of Dr Acharius, as a Stereocaulon. The general resemblance between the rein-deer lichen and two plants by Mr Turner, in his History of Fuci, F, viscidus, t.119, and F. amphibius, t. 109, is striking ; and the ramuli of F.-€hemnitzia, (t. 200), greatly resemble the shields of Parmelia perforata ele- vated on peduncles. If more illustration be wanting, it may be noticed, that four different species of sea- weed have, at different times, on account of their si- prec we to lichens, received the trivial name of /- cl S.

In.some of the fuci, other striking resemblances to certain land »plants may be traced ; but these are of no importance towards their classification. To creep« ing land plants, they are allied by a curious family, known by the title of Caulerpx, to be afterwards

* Excellently figured in Lightfoot’s figure of it is, in general, referred to) VOL, X. PART 1.

THE

EDIN BURGH ENCYCLOPADIA.

CE Or.

described. » In general appearance, some fuci resemble filices, and. others musci: ._F. membranaceus, (Zurn. t. 158), and F., Woodwardia, (Ner. Brit. p, 13, t. 6), are very like ferns of the genus Woodwardia ; and the frond. of F. scalpelliformis, (Turn. t. 174), has a great similarity to some mosses of the genus Fissidens.

_ With the animal kingdom, sea-weeds are connected by I. tomentosus, and F. bursa, (Zurn. t. 135, 6,) both of which resemble sponges in imbibing water, and giving it out on being pressed ; and also in emit~ ting a peculiar disagreeable odour a few hours af- ter being taken from the sea. F. bursa, indeed, is classed, both by Linnzus and Pallas, as a zoophyte. F. simpliciusculus, of Turner, (t. 175), and F, lycopo-« dium, (t..199), approach very near to that. class of beings; but, of all others, a small caulerpa, found by Mr Brown.in King George’s Sound, attached to my-« tili, and. lately figured by Turner, under the title of F. peniculus, (t.228), forms a link that most closes ly unites sea-weeds to the animal kingdom.

If itis a.difficult task to distinguish and arrange the vegetable productions of the surface of the earth, which. can be examined at. all, seasons, the difficulty is eyi- dently greatly increased in regard to marine plants. In these last the organization is more simple, and con- piss reacts they exhibit fewer distinctive characters ; and their place of growth almost precludes the pos« sibility of watching their progress and reproduction. Those best, able to. delineate their characters are often situated at a distance, and must decribe from the exa- mination of specimens not always judiciously selected by. others ; frequently from such as are torn from the rocks, and thrown ashore in storms, when the root or means of attachment is generally wanting.

The older. botanists, such as Clusius, the Bauhins, Barrelier, and gg a contented ng Nc win gi-

ing very short descriptions, or a few figures of sea aa PO bout, the Se Reaumur first examined the parts of fructification in some fuci.. He fell into a mistake similar to that which long prevailed concern- ing the seeds of ferns and mosses ; in considering as seeds what are. truly capsules, or tubercles, containing seeds. . The opinions of Reaumur seem to have been

Flora Scotica, p. 964, 't. $2, (The first time that any species of fucus is mentioned, a good

A

Fuci.

History.

Reaumur.

2 -FUCL

Fuci. —_——— History.

almost implicitly adopted by botanists down to the close of the 18th century. The celebrated Linneus had too much to do in reforming the arrangement of phenoga- mous plants, to pay very great attention to the cryptoga- mia. His situation at Upsala was certainly not favour- able for the investigation of the submersed alge, and his herbarium contained but peer a few ies; yet he described near 60 species of fuci. In 1768, Gmelin published, in 4to, his Historia generalis et specialis Fuco- rum, a work in which he not only céllected whatever was previously known, but added very considerably to the stock of knowledge. Indeed, considering it as the first general work on this branch of natural history, the author deserves great praise. He divided the plants of which he treated into nine orders: Vesiculosi, Globu- liferi; Penicilliferi, Corallini, Membranacei, Radicati, Agara, Tremelle, and Ulve. He described 101 spe- cies ; of which number he considered 37 as new, for he gives no synonimes with them. Linneus’s name is gi- ven to 27 species only. His notions, in general, con- cerning the fructification of fuci, and particularly the ' supposition of uniserual and asexual plants, were ra- ther crude, and have not been adopted.

The numerous fuci which inhabit our own shores, have been gradually illustrated by’a series of writers since the days of Ray, who enumerated a many in his

Nillenius. Synopsis. Those kinds of algee which Dillenius con- sidered as entitled to a place in his Historia Muscorum, which were chiefly Conferve, he arranged a¢cording to general habit and structure. But in the minute kinds, the want of a microscope has often led him into error; for instance, to describe as jointless, plants in whichythe dissepiments are obvious under an ordinary

Withering, lens, Withering, in his Atrangement of British Plants, gives descriptions of a number of’ species. He subdi- vides the genus into several sections: those with blad- ders ; with pod-like leaves ; necklace-like, or jointed ; flat; eylindvical; and capillary: the flat he farther dis- tinguishes as either mid-ribbed or ribless ; and these he still further separates, as either opake ‘or pellucid :

both the cylindrical and capillary he likewise subdi- vides by the same character of opake and pellucid.

Hudson, in his Flora Anglica, is remarkable for care

and accuracy ; in evidence of which it may’ be men- tioned, that his nomenclature is seldom altered by that most scrupulously exact naturalist Mr Turner of Yarmouth, in his writings on this branch: of iia-

Lightfoot. tural history. The descriptions of Lightfoot, in his Flora Scotica, when made from specimens picked up by himself, and examined on the spot, are highly cha- racteristic and luminous, The Nereis Britannica of

Stackhouse, Stackhouse, which appeared, in fascictili, between 1795

and 1802, has very considerable merit. The author had good opportunities of examining the English sea-weeds, as he resided on the shores ‘of Cornwall. He divided the genus Fucus into several genera, chiefly accord- ing to the fructification; and although he was but imperfectly acquainted with this, his arrangement deserves attention, and shall -be afterwards detail-

Linneus.

Gmelin.

Ray.

Hudson,

Velley. ed. - Major Velley’s figures, which are highly finish- ed, and his dissertation on the propagation of fuci, do Goodenough 4iH great credit. In the third volume of the Trans- and Wood- “ctions of the Linnean Society, the ‘Bishop of Carlisle ward. and Mr Woodward not only gave a most accurate summary of the state of knowledge with regard to British fuci; but added several new species, and amended the specific characters of others. In the , course of editing the extensive periodical work English abn E. Botany, Sir James Edward Smith likewise added se-

veral new species to the list. In 1802, Mr Dawson

Turner, of Yarmouth, produced his Synopsis of British _ Fuci- Fuci, a valuable little work, which gave the most en- couraging earnest of what might be expected from this writer, in his great work on fuci, then only pro- Turner. jected, but the publication of which is now consider- ably advanced.

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1796, M. Cor- Corréa da réa da Serra, a Portuguese-.naturalist of merit, publish- Serra. ed his remarks on the fructification of those fuci which are furnished with distinct receptacles. In the fol- lowing year, Dr Albert William Roth of Bremen pub- Roth.

History.

lished his Bemerkungen iiber das Studium der cryploga- mischen Wassergewichse, in which he divided cryptoga- mic water plants into new genera, to be afterwards mentioned. In the Catalecta Botanica of the same writer, considerable additional light has been thrown on marine plants, particularly by the communications of Professor Mertens of Bremen, characterised by Mr Turner as one of the most able algologists of the pre sent day. Professor Esper’s [cones Fucorum cum cha- racteribus systematicis, §c: in 4to. appeared in 1799. It isa useful work, though, as the author described’ and figured from dried specimens only, both his de- scriptions and representations are. occasionally imper- / fect and unsatisfactory. Professor Weber and the late Weber an¢ Dr Mohr, in their Beitriige zur Naturkunde, haye-en- Mohr. deavoured to subdivide the genus Fucus by the charac~

ter and disposition of the seeds ; and in the course of

this attempt, have made many excellent observations om

this tribe of plants. In 1803, Baron Xavier du Wulfen: wrutfen, published: a little work; entitled Cryptogamia Aquatica, containing some useful information concerning fuci: : In the Flora Danica, published in folio, at the expence of the Danish government, (a lesson to/governments that are more rich and powerful,) a number. of fuci, from the shores of the Baltic, and likewise from the distant settlements of that industrious nation, have been»

and described by the successive editors, Oeder, | Vahl, and Hornemann. Several other foreign writers have, at various times, contributed to a general knowledge of fuci ;. particularly the Count Ginanni, Ravennate, Bishop Gunner in his Flora Nelboailina iE asiegead in his History of Amboyna, Seba in his Thesaurus, and Forskael in the Flora Aayptiaco-Arabica.

The French have of late distinguished themselves in this branch of natural history. The labours of Des eandolle deserve much praise. There is a very good general account of fuci given by M. Poiret, in the botani- eal part of the Excyclopedie Methodique, The Flora At- lantica of Desfontaines is a work of great merit. But above all, M. Lamouroux of Agen, now Professor of Na- tural History at Caen, has studied the fuci with uncom- mon diligence and success.’ He» published, in »1804, dissertations on several new or rare species ; and in 1813 he gave a new arrangementiof the family, in the twentieth volume of the Annalesdu Museum d? Histoire Naturelle. Of this arrangement we think it-right to give a pretty full account, because at present itis the best. We must however confess, that in ouropinion there has been some precipitaney: in bringing it before the public. It would certainly have been .far :bet« ter, first to have published descriptions and figures of the many species inedite teferred to by the author, and to have. left the classification to the last. This is the plan wisely adopted by Mr Turner; and cir- cumstances seem to intimate, that the French natu- ralist has not been entirely free of a wish to anticipate our countryman: , But, in any case, it may be deemed fortunate for Mr Turner, that M. Lamouroux has ac- tually given his views to the world ; for while. the can

Esper.

French writers.

Lamou- TOUXx.

Fuci.

Turner and Hooker,

dour of the former will induce him to bestow all due honour on any rival arrangement, we confidently trust that he will not suffer his own sound judgment to be shackled, but will , unembaxrassed, on the foun- dation which he has so well laid, ‘to rear a system wor- thy of his name ; and we are therefore not displeased to find it announced as his opinion, that previously to any permanent classification being established, it will be to reduce the present genera, Fucus, Ulva, and Conferva, into one mass, and to proceed in ar-

ranging de novo. I

he first fasciculus of the Historia Fucorum, or Ge- neral History of Fuci, by Mr Turner, was publish- ed in 1807. Above fe fasciculi have now, (1815) come out; in which about 240 species have been described and illustrated. We speak the opinion of very competent judges on the Continent when we say, that Moth the descriptions and the coloured en- gravings are admirable, and do honour to the country. The latter are chiefly from drawings from the ta

neil Mr William Jackson Hooker, well known or his Tour in Iceland, and his beautiful monograph of the Jun niz. Never, as remarked by Sir

James Edward Smith, was there a more perfect com-

bination of the skill of the painter and ‘the botanist

than in this work. It is meant to include figures of all those plants which have, by Linnzus and subsequent botanists, been arranged under the genus Fucus. Many new species have already been added, communicated by distinguished botanists and travellers, particularly Mr Robert Brown, (the associate of the unfortunate Flinders), who remained for more than a. year about Van Diemen’s Land and .Kent’s Islands, and had thus

'€ precious opportunity of collecting the marine plants of

those distant countries, which he did not fail,to improve. The fuci collected by Lord Valentia and Mr Salt, in the Red Sea, also enrich the work; and Professor Mertens has communicated the Asiatic fuci collect- ed in the first Russian voyage round the world, in the

ships Newa and Nadeshda, The distinguished Dr

William Wright, of Edinburgh, freely communicated those ‘he had gathered on the shores of Jamaica, during his residence in that island. _ The illustrious Presidents of bys Royal and the Linnean Society (Sir Joseph Banks and Sir i. E. Smith) are likewise contributors. The descriptions by Mr Turner are ample and luminous, and are given both in Latin and English. | Particular care is bestowed in illustrating the physiology and fructification, and on this account the work a Oe interesting. In no botanical production was there ever greater attention paid to minute accuracy ; and some very general allegations .of occasional incorrectness, thrown out by Lamouroux in the Annales du Museum, are perhaps sufficiently confuted by this fact—that not one instance of real error is specified by the critic. The names at present attached to the plants by Mr Turner, may, in some measure, be considered as tem 5 at

-least new generic names must be adopted. It is

rO- bable, however, that, in the arrangement with which he is to conclude his work, few of the specific or trivial names will need to be changed. Every classification of fuci must, in the present state of our knowledge of them, be to a certain extent artificial ; but from. this author, as near an approach to a natural arrangement as possible, may confidently be expected.

Explanation of Terms.

Before going farther, it seems oad to explain, in a general way, a very few terms, chiefly connected with

FUCI.

of Natural Hist

‘saria, dated 1771. Service to botanists in here preserving it. Not

3 the fructification of the fuci, as these terms must fre- —_ Puci- quently recur in the ipnea sept pers of this article, and “yo” are scarcely to be found explained in elementary books, as applicable to this class of plants, By a receptacle is meant a process, often resembling Receptacle. a pod, and generally containing many tubercles, which pare in contain the seeds, as in Claudea elegans, (Plate CCLXI. CCLXI. Fig. 3.) ; F. vesiculosus, Fig. 4.; and F, no- Figs. 3, 4, dosus, Fig. 5. at aaa. e Tubercles are nearly solid, generally roundish, often Tubercle. composed of minute fibres, among which the seeds lie ; they frequently resemble pimples or warts, and are of- ten Ay her: or marked with a pore; frequently clus~ tered together ; sometimes half immersed in the frond; sometimes on short peduncles. See Plate CCLXI. Figs. 3, 4,5, above referred.to; and also Fig. 7. Fig. 7. Capsules ave seed-vessels, often partly hollow ; fre. Capsule. quently placed singly ; smooth on the surface; some- times spherical, but often of a lanceolate shape, like minute silique. See PlateCCLXI. Fig. 10. spherical Figs. 10, capsules ; Fig. 11. lanceolate capsules. In some cases, !!- it may be observed, the terms tubercle and capsule become nearly synonymous; they seem to be used al- most promiscuously by Mr Turner, in speaking of Per ticular species, as F. bracteatus, gigartinus, and kali- formis, (Turn. t. 25, 28, 29.) Vesicles are the air-bladders, well known in F. vesi- Vesicle. culosus, Plate CCLXI. Fig. 4.6; and nodosus, Fig, 5.6, and others ; but these vesicule have no connection with the fructification.

Previous to the account of Lamouroux’s system, it may be right to notice very shortly some of themethods suggested since the time of Linnzus and Gmelin, par- ticularly those of Walker, Stackhouse, Roth, Decan- dolle, and Wahlenberg.

Dr Walker's Method.

The method of Dr John Walker, late professor of Method of natural history in the University of Edinburgh, was Dr Walker. never published ; but it has been kindly communicated by his friend Mr Charles Stewart (author of Elements » in ;2 vols, 8yo. 1801, and editor of the new edition of Dillenius’s Historia Musco- rum), as, contained in vol. 6th of the Doctor's Adver= We trust that we do ‘an acceptable at it is preferable to some later methods, but that it consti- tutes matter of some curiosity, and enables us to trace the prgetss of the science. It has besides been indi- rectly alluded to by Mr Turner, in his Historia Fu- corum, vol. i. p. 96.

Dr Walker divides the submersed alge into fourteen genera: Cervina, Flabellaria, Bombycina, Annularia, Nodularia, Catenaria, Fucus, Platyceros, Phasganon, Ulva, Chartacea, Plumarium, Neurophyllum, and Spon- gia. Of these we shall give a very brief account, stating only the essential character, and the description of the fructification; and we think that fairness requires that the characters and descriptions be given in his own words.

The Ist genus Cervina or Hornweed, has the fol- lowing character: “‘Coriacea, dichotoma, inarticulata, Fr. Vesicule terminales vel superficiales, sessiles.” It is divided into two sections ; compressed, as Fucus no- dosus; and round; as F. fastigiatus, Lin. (rotundus, Turn. t. 5.) By vesicule, it is scarcely necessary to re- mark, the author means receptacles: He uses dulla@ to express air-vesicles.

2d genus, Fladellaria or Fanweed: Coriacea, pen-

Fuci.

—_——— Method of

Walker,

“é

nata, inarticulata. Fr. Vesicule rotundate solide ter- minales.” It is likewise divided into two sections ; with’ air-bladders as F. siliquosus (Turn. t. 159); and without air-bladders, as F. pinnatifidus, ‘(t. 20.)

8d, Bombycina or Silkweed: Cartilaginea abulla, inarticulata, ramis filaientosis. Fr, Vesicule globose, solide, ramis solidis.” This includes Conferva scoparia, C. tomentosa, and similar plants.

4th, Annularia or Ringweed :' Cartilaginea | annu- lata, ramis filamentosis. Fr. Tubercule globose solide terminales.” This is subdivided into several sections, and embraces a number of Conferve, ‘as C. fucoides and

nnata of Hudson. ‘in

5th, Nodularia or Knob-weed: * Herbacea, viridia, ramis ‘alternis, capillaceis, nodosis. Fr. Tubercula ra- mos “per intervalla occupantia.” This is divided into sections, with simple filiform fronds, as Conferva pli- eata of Hudson, and with filiform fronds much branched, as C. glomerata.

6th, Catenaria or Chain-weed : ** Gelatinosa, ramosa, articulata ; articulis tumidis.”* The fructification was unknown to the author. The genus ‘was’ divided into several’ sections, with verticillate, Opposite; ' dichoto- mous,’ and alternate branches, and included Ulva arti- ealata of Hudson, Conferva corallinoides of Linnzus, and similar plants.

7th, Fucus or Wrack: Coriaceiis, dichotomus, cos- tatus. Fr. Vesicule terminales, intus gelatinose, tu- berculis seminalibus rotundis.” This is divided’ into sections ; with air-bladders, as F. vesiculosus ; without

air-bladders, as F. serratus, (Turn. t..90.) ; and with ©

inflated fronds, as F. inflatus of Linneus, now ascer- tained to be a variety only of F. vesiculosus. 8th, Platyceros : Palmatus, dichotomus, enervius. Fr. Vesicule superficiales, sessiles, sparse, subglobose.” This is subdivided into leathery, membranaceous, and gelatinous, and, according to Dr Walker, embraces F. ceranoides and lacerus of Linnews. “+ 9th, Phasganon or Tangle: Stipitatum, monophyl- jum, coriaceum. . Fr. Vesicule supérficiales ‘globose, gelatinose, inter corticem et epidermidem folii tumide.” This is subdivided into two sections; those which are nerveless or destitute of a midrib, and those which have a midrib. The former section ineludes Ph. balteiforme, or Sea-belt of Dr Walker, (F?'saecharinus, Lin.) ; Ph. Marie or St Mary’s’ thistle; ‘Walk. (F. polyschides, Lightf.); and Ph. esculentum,’ or Common tang, Walk. (F. digitatus, Lin.) The latter section includes Ph. Scoticum, Walk. or F. esculentus, Lin. 10th, Ulva, or Laver: Sessilis, monephylla, mem- branacea, enervia. Fr. Tubercula intra membranas, Lin.” There are three sections, by means of which plants very widely different are brought together: 1.) Frondescent, including U. umbilicalis, or slake ; 2) completely tubular, such as the common U, com- pressa ; and (3.) tubular, divided by septe, embracing B, ert of Linneus, afterwards described (Turn. t. 86). : lith, Chartacea, or Dilse: * Sessilis, monophylla, enervia, palmata, laciniata.”’ The fructification was un- known to Dr Walker, | There are two sections; mem- branaceous and tn age The first includes the com- mon dilse; F. palmatus ( Turn: t. 115.), with F. proli- fer, (Lightf: t. 30.) and others the second,’ F. gelati- nosis of Hudson, the Sea’ ragged’ staff of. Pallas, 353. It may be- observed, that- Fucus Sarniensis of Roth, (Turn. t. 4%.) was’ known to Dr Walker by the name of Chartacea diehotoma. 12th, Plumarium, or Feather-weed: Stipitatum, cartilagineum, inarticulatim,ramosum, pennatum ;

FUCI.

fronde composita. Fr. Globuli laterales sessiles.” This genus is divided into several sections, being’ cartilagi- nous or membranaceous, and possessing or wanting a midrib ; and incluéss F. plumosus, ( Turn. t. 60. ) den- tatus, (t, 13.) and others. agpRanntennie = 6 ee

“13th, Newrophyllum, or Nerve-weed : ‘Stipitatum, rarhosum ;' foliis membranaceis distinctis. Fr. Tuber- cula globosa pedunculata, superficie foliorum.” F. sanguineus is a good example of this genus, (Turn. t. 36. , .

7 ae is the last genus of Dr Walker; and he di- vides sponges into sessile and branched ; but it is now generally admitted that they belong to the animal, and not to the vegetable kingdom. :

Mr Stackhouse’s Method.

Mr Stackhouse published his arrangement, in his Nereis Britannica, about the year 1797. He formed six genera: Fucus, Palmaria, Chondrus, : Corda, arid Codiim; the characters of which are take1 chiefly from ‘the’ fructification, ‘but partly from ‘struc. ture. ; ye y - rT een f

pe ruc hb tate Beale character: * Fructification a jelly-like mass, with imbedded seed-bearing granules, and external conical papille, terminating.” This genus is divided into two sections ; with the fruit ¢ |, as F. serratus and vesiculosus ; or innate, as F, loreus,

( Turn, t..196.) met lossy, polished on

2. Palmaria. Skin’ smooth, gl each side, with a colourless mucus within ; forming to- gether a thick consistent’ substance, with the seeds very minute, naked; orbicular, of the colour of the skin of the plant, disposed in patches or in lines, just within the surface of the cuticle,” This includes F. digitatus, (Turn, t. 162.) and edulis, (114.0

"3. Chondrus. © Pructifieation an ovate Hpi imbed- ded pericarp, containing seeds ina clear mucus, and prominent on either surface.” "This enibracés only one species, F. crispus, and its numerous varieties. (Turn. t. 216, 217.) a

4. Spherococcus. Fructification, external globular pericarps, adnate or immersed e or pedunculate ; containing seeds as in the others.” ‘This genus is sub- ‘divided into several sections; with distinct leaves, as F. sanguineus; with a midrib, as F. alatus, (Turn. t. 160.) ; with a compressed frond, as F. coccineus ; or a round frond, as F. rotundus. ~

5. Chorda. Fructification a mucous fluid in the hollow part of a cylindrical frond, with naked seeds af- fixed inwardly.” The principal example of this genus is F. filum.

6. Codium. Fructification invisible to the naked eye; frond roundish ; soft and spongy when wet; vel- vety when dry.” This embraces only the sponge-like fuei, particularly F. tomentosus, a fine downy or spon,

set,

sea-weed found on the south-west shores of E (Turn. t. 135.)

Mr Stackhouse expresses his conviction, that his ge« nera Fucus and Spherococcus will soon fall to be furs ther divided into several new genera; and he mentions some species having anomalous fructification, particu- larly F. ligulatus, (F%. Scot. t. 29.) and lycopodiodes, (urn. t. 12.) to which he had not been able to give a place in his arrangement.

Dr Roth's Method.

es, ' oye Method of Dr Roth, in his Catalecta Botanica, and in his Re- Roth,

tt

4

FUCI . 5 Water Plants, out articulations, bearing tubercles full of globules, Puci. Ceramium, Batra which globules " to be capsules. This ae Sy the species of Dr Dottcancend division of Ceramium, with articulations, those of the first being sent back to the genus Fucus: it likewise embraces the marine Con-

Ruci. marks on the Study o Pepa = poses the followi ~ pete ucus, u

- chospermum, Conferva, Mertensia, Hydrodictyon, Ul- _ ‘va, Rivalaria, Linckia, and Tremella. The plants usu-

ally denominated sea-weeds, are contained in. four of

these genera, viz. Fucus, Ceramium, Conferva, and

Ulva.

' Fucus is characterised thus: Vesicles (receptacles , imbedded in the substance of the frond, an furni with mucifluous pores.” "

Ceramium thus : eee oo proasitee - “naceo-cartilaginous, with adnate iferous capsules.” Of Se wendhanarn two divisions’ Ist, With unie form ca fronds, containing some of the more

slender nt 0 bg _ ee Pat nin tn a ve; 2d, Wi e fronds irregularly jointed, comprehend- ing the jointed fuci, and the a of the capsuli- ferous conferve. It may here be noticed, that Mr Stack-~ house at one time, while the French revolutionary wars prevented the naturalists of this country from knowing what was done by their brethren on the Continent, pro- posed td constitute a very different genus, embracing the broad smooth-fronded fuci, under the title. of Cera- mium; but that he afterwards dropt. that. name, and

substituted the appropriate one of Palmaria.. -

. The Conferve of Roth, are defined as consisting of small tubes, or herbaceous filaments, with granules of fructification scattered on the inside coats of the tubes ; and the Ulva, as presenting expanded dia mem- -branes, with granules of imbedded fructi nm princi-

ly towards the margins, which the Doctor consi- mare as liable first to decay, and thus to liberate the $. ;

- M. Decandolle’y Method:

M. Decandolle, in the Flora Gallica, and Flore Fran- gaise (1805), has given an arrangement of the submer- sed alge, chiefly founded on the writings of Dr Roth, and M. Vaucher of Geneva. Eleven genera are enu- merated: Nostoch, Rivularia, Ulva, Fucus, Ceramium, Diatoma, Chantransia, Conferva, B mum, Hydrodictyon, and Vaucheria. Of these; Ulva, Fucus, and Ceramium, comprize the sea-weeds. : ' Ulva includes all those with membranaceous fronds, in which the seeds or ca

epidermis, without any means of being discharged but

by the destruction of the frond itself. The genus seems .

rather heterogeneous, and is divided into no fewer than

six sections: (1.) Those that are gelatinous within, as

_F. tomentosus ; (2.) Those that are tubular, as the well- known Ulva compressa ;. (3.) Flat, without peduncle,

and without mid-rib, as U. umbilicalis, or laver ; (4.)

-Flat, with a longitudinal mid-rib, as F. membranaceus ; “(5.) Flat, with a peduncle, as the well-known tangle F. igitatus ; (6.) Flat, marked with transverse ‘zones, as

+ pavonia. A : ft Fucus is charaeterized as flat or filiform,, with the seeds or capsules united in groups or tubercles, some- times lateral, sometimes terminal ; the seeds being dis- charged by a distinct external pore. This description takes in a part only of the plants usually considered as

fuci, ee ly F. vesiculosus, serratus, siliquosus ; some having, as already noticed, passed to- the genus

Ulva, and others, as F. filum, going. to the following

us.

_Ceramium is by having filiform fronds, which are either simp

psules ‘are »placedunder the .,

or branched, and with or with-

ferve, The genus Conferva of the Flore Francaise is

confined to those fresh-water species which were hud-

re together by Linneus, under the name of Conferva ata,

Dr Wahlenberg’s Method.

Dr Wahlenberg * proposes the division of the Linnean Method of

genus Fucus into three genera, or rather tribes: Fucus, Wl properly. so-called ; Spharococcon ; and Palmaria. berg,

1, Fucus : Semina in capsulis poro dehiscentibus, aggregatis, frondi immersis ; stimulque adsunt vesicu- le simplices seu articulate.” This includes F. serratus, vesiculosus, siliquosus, nodosus, loreus.

2. Spheerococcon ;. Semina in capsulis imperforatis, solitariis, superficialibus ;_ simulque adsunt granula immersa-in appendicibus foliorum, fere ut in conferyis.” This takes in F. sanguineus, alatus, plumosus.

3. Palmaria: Semina solitaria nuda, in frondium- superficie.” This includes the large fuci, as F. digita~ tus, and saccharinus, (Turn. t. 163.)

He adopts the following subdivisions :

(1.) Frondescent, with:a simple mid-rib or nerve in the centre of the frond ; as. F. serratus and vesiculosus.

(2.) Frondescent, with branched veins or nerves ; as- F, sanguineus, and sinuosus, (Turn. t. 35.)

(3.) Stipitate, with a simple stem, proceeding. from a fingered root, and spreading out into a broad frond ; as F. digitatus and. saccharinus,

(4.) Foliaceous and stemless, membranaceous, with- out nerves or veins ; as F. palmatus, and canaliculatus ( Turn, t. 3.)

(5.), Caulescent, with. distinct fruit-bearing processes, (i: e. receptacles), which are deciduous; as F, siliquosus and nodosus.

'(6.) Caulescent, naked and compressed ; as F, loreus and plumosus.

(7.),Filiform, with spherical fronds; as F. filum and. lycopodiodes.

M. Lamouroua’s Method.

Lamouroux, far from confining himself tothe fruc- tification as-the basis of his divisions, derives his cha- racters from every part of the plant, .or even from any remarkable accessary circumstance. He-divides all the thalassiophytes, into. six Orders, viz. Fucacex, Flo- rise an Dict otee, Ulvacez, Alcyonidee, and Spongo-

exe

Most of the species of this family have distinct stems and leaves... In,the stems of the larger kinds, particu- larly in F. digitatus, may be observed parts analogous to the epidermis, bark,.wood and pith of land: plants. The Fucaceze are readily tornin a longitudinal direction, and a-well.characterized fibrous organization, is then displayed, . In general the fibres are divided by septa ; the partitions-being more distant and of. a looser tex- ture than inherbaceous plants. In most of the Fucaces the organs of fructification are complicated ; According to Lamouroux, the seeds are inclosed in capsules ; these.

* Georgii Wahlenberg Flora Lapponica, Berlin, 1812, 8yo..

The. Jirst order, Fucace®, is the most numerous. 1: Fuce- They are distinguished: by their woody structure, and CE. . their colour being somewhat olive, drying to blackish.”

Fuci.

—— Method of Lamou- roux.

FUCACE.

Fucus,

6

capsules are themselves enveloped by a particular mem- brane, and form tubercles; and these tubercles are group- ed into polymorphous masses. These masses are at- tached to the branches or to the extremities of fronds; they contain a mucilaginous matter, the quantity and viscidity of which increase as the seeds ripen; and when they are dispersed, it disappears with them. The fronds of the Fucacez vary in composition, situation, ge- neral or particular shape, with or without nerves ; ex- hibiting a variety almost as great as the leaves of dico- tyledonous plants. :

The Ist genus is Fucus, which is thus defined: « Tubercles numerous, collected in cylindrical recep- tacles, which are flat or compressed, solitary or in pairs ; the root an expanding callous disk.” | This character'has no doubt the effect greatly to reduce the numbers of the old genus Fucus; but it is still very extensive, and the author has judged it necessary to divide it into no fewer than eleven sections. Plants which materially differ in

eneral aspect and habit are still brought together: thus

. natans, siliquosus, vesiculosus, loreus, and canalicu- latus, are arranged under this one genus; while we might expect them to form as many distinct genera. In specifying the different sections, some of the best known or most remarkable species shall be mentioned as examples.

Sect. (1.) With petiolated air-vesicles; leaves dis- tinct, either sessile or petiolated. This includes F. na- tans and F. bacciferus of Turner, (t. 46, 47.) both of them found floating in the ocean, and’ forming much of the Mar do Sargasso of the Portuguese. But’ not one Bri- tish species falls under this section, unless, perhaps, F. salicifolius of Poiret.

(2.) With petiolated air-vesicles, furnished with a terminal foliaceous membrane; as F. turbinatus, (Turn. t. 24.) found in the East and West Indies.

(3.) With oblong vesicles, winged with'a triple mem- brane, producing a three-sided or angular appearance. A single species only belongs to this section, viz. F. tri- queter, (Turn. t. 34.) from the sea near the Cape.

(4.) With petiolated vesicles lengthening in ‘the form of a pod. Highly characteristic of this section, ‘a well known British species occurs, F. siliquosus ; but the vesicles or air-bladders may be readily overlooked by a careless observer, on account of their resemblance ae receptacles generally to be found on the same

t, E (5.) The vesicles forming a part of the branches ; leaves distinct. For example, F. tamariscifolius of Hudson, (F. ericoides, Turn. t. 191.)

(6.) Fructification at the ends of the fronds, which are flat, branched, generally provided with a single nerve, and with vesicles. This includes the two very abundant and well known species, F. vesiculosus and serratus.

(7.) Vesicles innate in the branches; the fructifica- tion on peduncles, This likewise includes a very ge« neral species, F. nodosus.

(8.) Without leaves ; vesicles like a string of beads, and covered with the fructification. This section is created solely for the very remarkable sea-weed named by Labillardiere F. moniliformis, and by Mr Turner F. Banksii, § Hist. Fuc. t. 1.) The former name is so expressive of the character of the plant, that any change is to be deprecated, particularly as the illustrious Pre- sident of the Royal Society is already loaded with well merited botanical honours.

_(9.) Without vesicles, and with a single round um- bilicated frond at the base of the branches.—This sec« 4

FUCI.

‘Holland. ‘Till,

Fuci.

tion embraces only the remarkable ape F. loreus, Method of

common on many of our shores, and which attracts attention chiefly on account of the round umbilicated ;" iy frond above mentioned, which, in the early of ou, growth, resembles a large peziza, and gives the rocks

the appearance of being covered with a crop of mush- a rooms. d

(10.) Without leaves and without vesicles; fructifi- cation at the ends of the branches, which are channelled. —This takes in F. canaliculatus (Turn. t.3.), common on our shores ; and F’. Mackaii (t. 52.),a ies found . on the west coast of Scotland, and named in honour of the discoverer Mr James Townsend Mackay, of the Col- lege Botanic Garden, Dublin, an excellent and most de~ serving botanist. Pert vo

(11.) Without leaves or vesicles ; branches cylindri« cal, with the fructification at the tips ; as F. tubercula~ : tus, (Turn. t.7.)

2. Laminaria ; With the root fibrous and’ branch~ Laminaria. ed.” This generic character is objectionable, on the ground that the root is frequently specimens of sea-weeds which are cast ashore ; 5 on the other hand, the fructification, from which ge< neric characters are commonly taken, is also frequently wanting, and at any rate it is very little known. Most of the laminarize are plants, with broad fronds, inhabiting deep places of the shores, where they are much exposed to the action of waves, and euros 4 therefore the strong mode of attachment with whi they are furnished, and from which the generic charac- ter is derived. Some have air-vesicles, asf. pyri (Turn. t..110.), and F. buccinalis (t..139.); and in others, vesicles seem entirely wanting. Not only the gigantic sea-weeds of the Southern Seas, some of them described as more than 1000 feet in length, belong to this genus; the largest of the British fuci also fall un- der it, the well known great tangles, F.polyschides or bulbosus, F. digitatus and saccharinus. =

3. Osmundaria: Fructifications minute; oblong, on Osm footstalks, situated at the points of’ the: leaves ; the ti leaves entirely covered with small spiny mamnille.”— This genus, named from its resemblance to some ferns of the genus Osmunda, is formed for the sake of one

ies of trifling size, brought fromthe shores of New wever, it be examined by some bo-

4. Desmarestia: Fructification unknown ; branches Desm and leaves broad, contracted at ware ace so oo" a supported on petioles; the edges garni oath winall oines.”—This includes F, aculeatus (Turn. t. 187.), which is common on our , and -F. ligulatus (t..98.), which is rare: Lamouroux, as well as Stackhouse, is inclined to: consider the marginal spi- nules as containing the seeds of the plants; but Mr Turner has doubts on the subject.

5. Furcellaria: Fructification pod-shaped, subula- ted, simple or branched, ‘smooth, stem and branches

lindrical, and without leaves.’—This includes only

. lumbricalis (Turn. t. 6.) and its varieties.

6. Chorda: Fructification unknown ; stem simple, Chorda. cylindrical, divided by internal dissepiments,”—the Z nicula intergerina of Roth. ‘The name Chorda was j applied by Stackhouse to a small group of fuci, consisting ; chiefly of F.filum and F. thrix. The latter is now known i to be nothing but the